Här samlar vi artiklar om ADHD och Ritalin/metylfenidat.
Live fast, die young? A review on the developmental trajectories of ADHD across the lifespan.
Barbara Franke, Giorgia Michelini, Philip Asherson, Tobias Banaschewski, Andrea Bilbow, Jan K. Buitelaar , Bru Cormand, Stephen V. Faraone, Ylva Ginsberg, Jan Haavik, Jonna Kuntsi, Henrik Larsson, Klaus-Peter Lesch, J. Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, János M. Réthelyi, Marta Ribases, Andreas Reif,
European Neuropsychopharmacology (2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2018.08.001
Abstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable and the most common neu- rodevelopmental disorder in childhood. In recent decades, it has been appreciated that in a substantial number of cases the disorder does not remit in puberty, but persists into adulthood. Both in childhood and adulthood, ADHD is characterised by substantial comorbidity including substance use, depression, anxiety, and accidents. However, course and symptoms of the disor- der and the comorbidities may fluctuate and change over time, and even age of onset in child- hood has recently been questioned. Available evidence to date is poor and largely inconsistent with regard to the predictors of persistence versus remittance. Likewise, the development of comorbid disorders cannot be foreseen early on, hampering preventive measures. These facts call for a lifespan perspective on ADHD from childhood to old age. In this selective review, we summarise current knowledge of the long-term course of ADHD, with an emphasis on clinical symptom and cognitive trajectories, treatment effects over the lifespan, and the development of comorbidities. Also, we summarise current knowledge and important unresolved issues on biological factors underlying different ADHD trajectories. We conclude that a severe lack of knowledge on lifespan aspects in ADHD still exists for nearly every aspect reviewed. We en- courage large-scale research efforts to overcome those knowledge gaps through appropriately granular longitudinal studies.
PubMed Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30195575
Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: key conceptual issues.
Asherson P, Buitelaar J, Faraone SV, Rohde LA. Lancet Psychiatry. 2016 Jun;3(6):568-78.
For many years, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was thought to be a childhood-onset disorder that has a limited effect on adult psychopathology. However, the symptoms and impairments that define ADHD often affect the adult population, with similar responses to drugs such as methylphenidate, dexamphetamine, and atomoxetine, and psychosocial interventions, to those seen in children and adolescents. As a result, awareness of ADHD in adults has rapidly increased and new clinical practice has emerged across the world. Despite this progress, treatment of adult ADHD in Europe and many other regions of the world is not yet common practice, and diagnostic services are often unavailable or restricted to a few specialist centres. This situation is remarkable given the strong evidence base for safe and effective treatments. Here we address some of the key conceptual issues surrounding the diagnosis of ADHD relevant to practising health-care professionals working with adult populations. We conclude that ADHD should be recognised in the same way as other common adult mental health disorders, and that failure to recognise and treat ADHD is detrimental to the wellbeing of many patients seeking help for common mental health problems.
PubMed Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27183901
Emotional dysregulation in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-validity, predictability, severity, and comorbidity.
Corbisiero S, Mörstedt B, Bitto H, Stieglitz RD. J Clin Psychol. 2016 May 6. [Epub ahead of print].
OBJECTIVES: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. However, this triad might not be able to explain the complete spectrum of ADHD symptoms, as emotional dysregulation (ED) frequently seems to accompany the disorder. The aim of this study was to further understand the role of ED in adult ADHD.
METHOD: The sample comprised 393 adults with ADHD without or with comorbidity, and 121 adults without ADHD or any other mental disorder. Additionally, the sample focused on ED. The contribution of core symptoms and the effect of comorbidity on ED were tested and the predictive value of ED for the ADHD diagnosis itself analyzed. Finally, all subjects were categorized into groups-No ADHD, ADHD, and ADHD + ED-to analyze the differences in the severity of ADHD symptomatology in the three groups.
RESULTS: ED levels were found to be elevated in patients with ADHD. The core symptoms affected ED, and the ADHD diagnosis was predicted by ED. The addition of ED to a regression model with the core symptoms was shown to improve the predictability of the ADHD diagnosis. The presence of ED proved to be an indicator of the severity of adult ADHD independent of a present comorbidity.
CONCLUSIONS: ED is a significant symptom in adult patients with ADHD and appears to be associated with ADHD itself. Whilst the presence of other mental disorders intensifies symptoms of ED, ED seems not to manifest solely as a consequence of comorbidity. PubMed Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27153511
Factors associated with adherence to methylphenidate treatment in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders.
Skoglund C, Brandt L, Almqvist C, D´Onofrio, Konstenius M, Franck J, Larsson H. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2016;36: 222-228.
Adherence to treatment is one of the most consistent factors associated with a favorable addiction treatment outcome. Little is known about factors associated with treatment adherence in individuals affected with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders (SUD). This study aimed to explore whether treatment-associated factors, such as the prescribing physician's (sub)specialty and methylphenidate (MPH) dose, or patient-related factors, such as sex, age, SUD subtype, and psychiatric comorbidity, were associated with adherence to MPH treatment. Swedish national registers were used to identify adult individuals with prescriptions of MPH and medications specifically used in the treatment of SUD or a diagnosis of SUD and/or coexisting psychiatric diagnoses. Primary outcome measure was days in active MPH treatment in stratified dose groups (≤36 mg, ≥37 mg to ≤54 mg, ≥55 mg to ≤72 mg, ≥73 mg to ≤90 mg, ≥91 mg to ≤108 mg, and ≥109 mg). Lower MPH doses (ie, ≤36 mg day 100) were associated with treatment discontinuation between days 101 and 830 (HR≤36 mg, 1.67; HR37-54mg, 1.37; HR55-72mg, 1.36; HR73-90mg, 1.19; HR≥108mg, 1.09). The results showed a linear trend (P < 0.0001) toward decreased risk of treatment discontinuation along with increase of MPH doses. In conclusion, this study shows that higher MPH doses were associated with long-term treatment adherence in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and SUD.
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Dalsgaard S et al. Effect of drugs on the risk of injuries in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a prospective cohort study.
Lancet Psychiatry 2015;2 702-09
Ginsberg Y et al. Underdiagnosis of ADHD in adult patients: A review of the Literature.
Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2014;16(3)
Huss M, Ginsberg Y, Tvedten T, Arngrim T, Philipsen A, Carter K, Chen C-W, Kumar V. Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Modified-Release in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.
Adv Ther, 2014;31(1):44-65.
Huss M, Ginsberg Y, Arngrim T, Philipsen A, Carter K, Chien CW, Gandhi P, Kumar V. Open-Label Dose Optimization of Methylphenidate Modified Release Long Acting (MPH-LA): A Post Hoc Analysis of Real-Life Titration from a 40-Week Randomized Trial.
Clin Drug Investig. 2014; 34(9): 639–649. (NY)
Ginsberg Y, Arngrim T, Philipsen A, Gandhi P, Chen CW, Kumar V, Huss M. Long-Term (1 Year) Safety and Efficacy of Methylphenidate Modified-Release Long-Acting Formulation (MPH-LA) in Adults with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A 26-Week, Flexible-Dose, Open-Label Extension to a 40-Week, Double-Blind, Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Core Study.
CNS Drugs 2014 Oct;28(10):951-62. (NY)
Vid behandling med metylfenidat hos barn och ungdomar med ADHD finns checklistor att använda. Checklista 1: före behandling, Checklista 2: övervakning av behandling samt en Tabell Se länk för mer information.
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Int. J. Epidemiol. Advance Access published January 24, 2014.
Ginsberg Y et al. Underdiagnosis of ADHD in adult patients: A review of the Literature.
Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2014;16(3) (NY)
Ginsberg Y et al. The unmet needs of all adults with ADHD are not the same: a focus on Europe. Expert Reviews.
Informahealthcare.com 2014;799-812. (NY)
Sören Dalsgaard et al. Mortality in children, adolescents, and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a nationwide cohort study.
www.thelancet.com 2015. Online publication Feb 26, 2015. (NY)
Ginsberg Y, Långström N, Larsson H, Lichtenstein P. ADHD and criminality: could treatment benefit prisoners with ADHD who are at higher risk of reoffending?
Expert Rev. Neurother, 2013; 13(4), 345–348.
Konstenius M, Larsson H, Lundholm L, Philips B, Glind G, Jayaram-Lindström N, Franck J. An Epidemiological Study of ADHD, Substance Use, and Comorbid Problems in Incarcerated Women in Sweden.
J of Attention Disord 2015. (NY)
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Biederman J et al. Predictors of persistence in girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results from an 11-year controlled follow-up study. Acta Psychiatr Scand, 2012: 125:147–156.
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Huss M, Ginsberg Y, Tvedten T, Arngrim T, Philipsen A, Carter K, Chen C-W, Kumar V. Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Modified-Release in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial. Adv Ther, 2014;31(1):44-65.
Huss M, Ginsberg Y, Arngrim T, Philipsen A, Carter K, Chien CW, Gandhi P, Kumar V. Open-Label Dose Optimization of Methylphenidate Modified Release Long Acting (MPH-LA): A Post Hoc Analysis of Real-Life Titration from a 40-Week Randomized Trial. Clin Drug Investig. 2014; 34(9): 639–649. (NY) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25015027
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